The prepositions of ways and means show how, why, with what and what for. They are
those little words that play a big role in communication and understanding.
Look over the list of definitions with samples below and then do the exercise that
follows. You can check your answers afterwards.
** ShowingLIKE or
AS = in
the capacity of someone's profession/ habit
He takes over as managing director next month.
BY = by
“Inflation is growing fast, isn't it?” “Yes, it's getting higher by the
behavior; in the manner of
She always acts like a child when she doesn't get her way.
having a quality of manner
He ran the race with spirit and enthusiasm.
** ShowingWHAT FOR or
the express purpose
This machine is used for making computer screens and televisions.
IN = a
part of a process
These chemicals are used in the film developing process.
TOWARDS = to do something for a specific purpose or reason
I'm putting this money towards a new a car.
** ShowingWHAT WITH or
BY = A.
instrument (human or object) B. means C. agent (in the passive) D. author / creator
A. He was killed by a falling boulder. B. You'll have to come by air if you want to get here before Thursday. C. The new shopping mall was built by a private company. D. Have you read the new book by Stephen King?
BY MEANS OF = means (more formal than by)
The winner was chosen by means of a secret ballot.
by way of
We flew via Brussels is to go to Athens from New York.
instrument (usually object
with a human subject)